Direct injection engine

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Direct injection engine

Direct injection offers numerous benefits. By injecting fuel right into the cylinder, the powertrain control module can exhibit more control over the fueling.

The placement and control yields more performance and lower emissions, but as with any technology there can be downsides.

A Direct-Injection-Specific Oil Could Save Your EcoBoost Engine

Some are annoying, like a sooty exhaust tip, while others, like low-speed pre-ignition, might cost just you an engine. Simply put, direct-injection engines create higher levels of fuel dilution in the motor oil, and that creates specific problems. In the United Kingdom there is a racing series called the Mini Challenge, where the race engines run direct injection.

After a rash of engine failures at races, the series organizers sought out a solution. After identifying the increased chance of low-speed pre-ignition in direct-injection applications, Driven Racing Oils developed is line of DI oils.

They are available in 0-W20, 5-W30, 0-W40, and W Photo Credit: Driven Racing Oil. It turns out that the lubrication gurus at Driven Racing Oil and already been working with the scientists at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who were given a grant to come up with a better oil formula for direct-injection engines.

Detergent Detonation.

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This was proven-out by blending oil formulas that eliminated Sodium detergents and greatly reduced Calcium detergents. These research formulas also eliminated LSPI events. These calcium detergents help with fuel economy, prevent rust and keep the engine clean. However, these same calcium detergents also increase the tendency of an abnormal combustion event, also known as Low-Speed Pre-Ignition.

Direct Lubrication. The resulting DI oils — available in 0-W20, 5-W30, 0-W40, and W60 — are designed to not only alleviate the risk of LSPI, but protect against wear from soot in the oil, lower crankcase vapors, and reduce carbon buildup on the valves. All these can be issues with direct-injection applications. After running both the factory oil and its own DI-specific oil in a Focus RS, the Driven team sent samples of the two used oils in for analysis. The standard oil showed more wear, while the Driven DI, with its reduced calcium levels, showed less wear.

That soot you see on the exhaust tip can also create extra wear. Proven Performance. First the company submitted used oil from a factory fill for analysis.

Then used oil from a Driven DI fill was put through the same battery of tests. When a lower-calcium-level oil was used, the engine performance and protection increased. Protecting a direct-injection engine from wear and low-speed pre-ignition is what the Driven DI oils are built to do.

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About Us Sponsors Advertising. Dual-Fuel Too? Article Sources. Driven Racing Oil. Latest News. Engine Tech. More Stories. Horsepower delivered to your inbox. Subscribe Now.What is direct injection? Should I be afraid of it? This video from Savagegeese explains what direct injection is and what can go wrong with it.

Gasoline direct injection

In addition to the pros and cons, preventative maintenance is also explained. The host also touches on older port-injection motors as well as motors that utilize both methods of fuel-injection. Using diagrams from Bosch, the host explains how all this works. In an effort to comply with new environmental regulations, direct injection is now the norm on many new models. This type of injection has the injector nozzle spraying directly into the combustion chamber, allowing much less fuel to be wasted and lower emissions in general.

In general, this is much less complicated way of delivering fuel but allows for much more fuel to be wasted and higher emissions. The host explains a few problems that car owners can experience with direct injection that includes dirtier valves and degraded performance especially on turbocharged engines.

In addition, the host also demonstrates a few possible ways to remedy the downsides of direct injection. Lance Tedford spends his energies working on his Chrysler LeBaron. He is extremely tall and can never die. Everything you need to know about and expect during. The A. Alex Hevesy. Filed to: explainers. Alex Hevesy Posts Twitter. Share This Story. Get our newsletter Subscribe.It has been touted as the automotive holy grail, the ultimate marriage of better performance and greater fuel economy.

And it has actually been delivering results. Though direct injection is currently seen mostly on luxury vehicles or on mainstream cars as a higher-trim option priced anywhere from a few hundred dollars to a couple of thousandit could soon be within the means of more drivers as costs continue to come down. But those engines are also having reliability problems, something that automakers are trying to keep quiet.

Not surprisingly, a number of readers have asked us about direct injection. It turns out that the intake valves had to be cleaned due to carbon deposits that were causing drivability issues. When his dealer failed to offer free work or any compensation, Halkidis took his car to a local VW shop that cleaned the valves by blasting them with walnut shells. The result is more complete combustion and cooler cylinder temperatures that enable a higher compression ratio for greater efficiency and power.

Combining direct injection with other technologies—such as turbocharging—can deliver even greater gains in economy and performance. That in turn enables carmakers to use smaller displacement engines, resulting in an efficiency snowball effect.

direct injection engine

Although the breakthrough seems like a dream come true, an unwanted side effect has been emerging. The result can be engine hesitation and a loss of power—and the need for expensive repairs. Some carmakers, including BMW and Kia, have issued technical service bulletins TSBs to their dealers recommending that drivers use only name-brand detergent gasoline—without ethanol additives—and that they periodically add a fuel-system cleaner when they refuel.

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A TSB is an alert that the automaker sends to dealers to warn about ongoing problems with individual models and how to fix them. It may allow dealers to make repairs at little or no cost to the customer as a goodwill gesture. It involves modifying the engine to spray a small amount of fuel directly onto the valves to help keep them clean. But if your engine stumbles more than it used to, or it suddenly lacks power, ask your dealer about it.

A fix may be available, and you may not have to pay for it. This article also appeared in the February issue of Consumer Reports magazine. Get Ratings on the go and compare while you shop.

direct injection engine

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Already signed-up? Manage your newsletters here too. Cars News. See your savings. Mobile Get Ratings on the go and compare while you shop Learn more.What kind of engine will propel your next car or truck?

If you've been toying around with the idea of buying a diesel for its fuel economy try nearly 50 mpg for the Volkswagen Jetta TDIwell, you may not need to give up on the trusted and familiar gasoline engine just yet. That's because one of the technologies that makes diesels so miserly on fuel is coming to gasoline engines, too. It's called direct injection, and it refers to how the fuel makes its way inside an engine's controlled-explosion room, better known as a combustion chamber.

direct injection engine

In a garden-variety gasoline engine with fuel injection, gasoline takes a more roundabout route than it does with the direct injection method.

This indirect approach causes all manner of inefficiencies in burning the fuel, and it can result in a lot of usable energy getting wasted -- and you not getting the most for the money you spent at the pump.

In a direct injection engine, however, the fuel skips the waiting period it would have to endure inside a standard engine and instead proceeds straight to the combustion chamber. This allows the fuel to burn more evenly and thoroughly.

For the driver, that can translate to better mileage and greater power to the wheels. In the past, direct injection posed too many technical hurdles to make it worthwhile for mass market gasoline automobiles. But with advances in technology and greater pressure to make cars run more cleanly and efficiently, it looks as if gasoline direct injection -- or GDI as it's referred to in industry lingo -- is here to stay. In fact, most of the major car manufacturers make or plan to soon introduce gasoline cars that take advantage of this fuel saving and performance enhancing system.

See more pictures of engines.For the lay individual, the labyrinth of hoses, wire harnesses, manifolds and tubing beneath a car hood might appear intimidating.

But when it comes to the gasoline engine, just know this: It needs fuel, air oxygen, to be precise and spark in order to operate. The two most critical differences between a direct injection engine and a standard gasoline engine are how they deliver fuel and how the fuel mixes with incoming air. These basic premises make a tremendous difference in an engine's overall efficiency.

Before we look inside the direct injection engine, let's view a quick second in the life of a standard gasoline engine for a more complete look at the gasoline engine, check out How Car Engines Work. First, the fuel travels via pump from the fuel tank, through the fuel line and into fuel injectors that are mounted into the engine. The injectors spray gasoline into the air intake manifold, where fuel and air mix together into a fine mist.

At precisely timed intervals, intake valves open, corresponding to the different cylinders of the engine.

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As a cylinder's intake valve opens, a piston in that cylinder descends, sucking the fuel-air mist from the air manifold above into the chamber below. As the piston ascends once more, it squeezes compresses the fuel-air mix until it is nearly nine times as dense as it was to begin with. Then, that cylinder's designated spark plug fires, igniting the chamber into a high-pressure, high-energy explosion. This little bang pushes the piston back down with tremendous force, causing it to turn the crankshaft and ultimately send power to the wheels.

Got that? Pretty complicated, huh? It works, but from an engineering standpoint, it leaves much to be desired, and it's pretty wasteful. With a direct injection engine, however, the fuel gets to skip a step and add a bit of efficiency. Instead of hanging out in the air intake manifold, fuel is squirted directly into the combustion chamber.

Pros and cons of buying a car with Direct Injection

With an assist from modern engine management computers, the fuel gets burned right where it's needed, when it's needed [source: Fueleconomy. To find out more about what makes direct injection engines more efficient, move on to the next page. Prev NEXT. Direct Injection Basics. With direct injection engines, fuel is squirted directly into the combustion chamber instead of hanging out in the air intake manifold.Direct fuel injection is a fuel-delivery technology that allows gasoline engines to burn fuel more efficiently, resulting in more power, cleaner emissions, and increased fuel economy.

Gasoline engines work by sucking a mixture of gasoline and air into a cylinder, compressing it with a piston, and igniting it with a spark. The resulting explosion drives the piston downwards, producing power.

Traditional indirect fuel injection systems pre-mix the gasoline and air in a chamber just outside the cylinder called the intake manifold. In a direct injection system, the air and gasoline are not pre-mixed. Rather, air comes in via the intake manifold, while the gasoline is injected directly into the cylinder. Combined with ultra-precise computer management, direct injection allows more accurate control over fuel metering, which is the amount of fuel injected and injection timing, the exact point when the fuel is introduced into the cylinder.

The location of the injector also allows for a more optimal spray pattern that breaks the gasoline up into smaller droplets. The result is more complete combustion. In other words, more of the gasoline is burned, which translates to more power and less pollution from each drop of gasoline. The primary disadvantages of direct injection engines are complexity and cost. Direct injection systems are more expensive to build because their components must be more rugged. They handle fuel at significantly higher pressures than indirect injection systems and the injectors themselves must be able to withstand the heat and pressure of combustion inside the cylinder.

The Cadillac CTS is sold with both indirect and direct injection versions of its 3. The indirect engine produces horsepower and lb. Another advantage is that Cadillac's direct injection engine runs on regular octane gasoline. Competing cars from Infiniti and Lexus, which use hp V6 engines with indirect injection, require premium fuel. Direct injection technology has been around since the midth century.

However, few automakers adopted it for mass-market cars. Developments such as rising fuel prices and stricter fuel economy and emissions legislation have led many automakers to begin developing direct fuel injection systems.

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You can expect to see more and more cars make use of direct injection in the near future. Virtually all diesel engines use direct fuel injection. However, because diesel engines use a different process to combust their fuel, where a traditional gasoline engine compresses a mixture of gasoline and air and ignite it with a spark, diesels compress air only, then spray in fuel which is ignited by the heat and pressure, their injection systems differ in design and operation from gasoline direct fuel injection systems.

Aaron Gold. Updated January 13, Gasoline direct injection GDIalso known as petrol direct injection PDI[1] is a mixture formation system for internal combustion engines that run on gasoline petrolwhere fuel is injected into the combustion chamber.

This is distinct from manifold fuel injection systems, which inject fuel into the intake manifold. The use of GDI can help increase engine efficiency and specific power output as well as reduce exhaust emissions. The first GDI engine to reach production was introduced in for a low-compression truck engine.

Several German cars used a Bosch mechanical GDI system in the s, however usage of the technology remained rare until an electronic GDI system was introduced in by Mitsubishi for mass-produced cars. GDI has seen rapid adoption by the automotive industry in recent years, increasing in the United States from 2.

The 'charge mode' of a direct-injected engine refers to how the fuel is distributed throughout the combustion chamber:. Compared with manifold injection, the fuel efficiency is only very slightly increased, but the specific power output is better, [7] which is why the homogeneous mode is useful for so-called engine downsizing. The torque is then set solely by means of quality torque controlling, meaning that only the amount of injected fuel, but not the amount of intake air is manipulated in order to set the engine's torque.

Stratified charge mode also keeps the flame away from the cylinder walls, reducing the thermal losses. Since mixtures too lean cannot be ignited with a spark-plug due to a lack of fuelthe charge needs to be stratified e.

A "swirl cavity" in the top of the piston is often used to direct the fuel into the zone surrounding the spark plug. This technique enables the use of ultra-lean mixtures that would be impossible with carburetors or conventional manifold fuel injection.

The stratified charge mode also called "ultra lean-burn" mode is used at low loads, in order to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. In theory, a stratified charge mode can further improve fuel efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions, [16] however, in practice, the stratified charge concept has not proved to have significant efficiency advantages over a conventional homogeneous charge concept, but due to its inherent lean burn, more nitrogen oxides are formed, [17] which sometimes require a NOx adsorber in the exhaust system to meet emissions regulations.

The Volkswagen Group had used fuel stratified injection in naturally aspirated engines labelled FSIhowever, these engines have received an engine control unit update to disable the stratified charge mode. Stratified charge concepts have mostly been abandoned. Common techniques for creating the desired distribution of fuel throughout the combustion chamber are either spray-guidedair-guidedor wall-guided injection.

The trend in recent years is towards spray-guided injection, since it currently results in a higher fuel efficiency. In engines with wall-guided injection, the distance between spark plug and injection nozzle is relatively high. In order to get the fuel close to the spark plug, it is sprayed against a swirl cavity on top of the piston as seen in the picture of the Ford EcoBoost engine on the rightwhich guides the fuel towards the spark plug.

Special swirl or tumble air intake ports aid this process. The injection timing depends upon the piston speed, therefore, at higher piston speeds, the injection timing, and ignition timing need to be advanced very precisely.

direct injection engine

At low engine temperatures, some parts of the fuel on the relatively cold piston cool down so much, that they cannot combust properly. When switching from low engine load to medium engine load and thus advancing the injection timingsome parts of the fuel can end up getting injected behind the swirl cavity, also resulting in incomplete combustion.

Like in engines with wall-guided injection, in engines with air-guided injection, the distance between spark plug and injection nozzle is relatively high. However, unlike in wall-guided injection engines, the fuel does not get in contact with relatively cold engine parts such as cylinder wall and piston.

Instead of spraying the fuel against a swirl cavity, in air-guided injection engines the fuel is guided towards the spark plug solely by the intake air. The intake air must therefore have a special swirl or tumble movement in order to direct the fuel towards the spark plug. This swirl or tumble movement must be retained for a relatively long period of time, so that all of the fuel is getting pushed towards the spark plug.

This however reduces the engine's charging efficiency and thus power output. In practice, a combination of air-guided and wall-guided injection is used.

In engines with spray-guided direct injection, the distance between spark plug and injection nozzle is relatively low. Both the injection nozzle and spark plug are located in between the cylinder's valves. The fuel is injected during the latter stages of the compression stroke, causing very quick and inhomogeneous mixture formation.


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